- Alpha Arbutin
- N-acetyl glucosamine
- Regu®-Fade (Resveratrol)
- Synovea® HR (Hexylresorcinol)
Arbutin is a botanically derived compound found in certain plant species such as cranberries, blueberries, wheat and pears. The primary source of arbutin is a small evergreen bush called bearberry. Arbutin is derived from the leaves of this bush. Bearberry grows over the most of the northern hemisphere.
Arbutin exerts two conformations, alpha and beta Arbutin. The alpha arbutin offers higher stability and efficacy when compared to the beta form. Hence alpha arbutin is used in Complexi-Light’s formulation. Alpha arbutin has been shown to work on all skin types.
Arbutin exerts its effect through controlled release of hydroquinone. This controlled release has been shown to be significantly less cytotoxic making it much safer. The mechanism of action of arbutin to inhibit melanin production is comparable to hydroquinone without the toxicity and irritation.
The reason why Arbutin is so effective at lightening skin tone is that it essentially inhibits the production of melanin on a cellular level. In order for skin cells to produce melanin, it needs to produce an enzyme called tyrosinase.
Arbutin inhibits melanosomal tyrosinase activity leading to a reduction in melanin production. Arbutin also inhibits melanosome maturation causing a decrease melanin production.
In a clinical skin-lightening study on 80 women of Chinese descent, a 1% emulsion of alpha arbutin demonstrated that the skin lightening effects were 20% greater than Kojic Acid and 60% greater than Hydroquinone.
Source: Alpha arbutin by Pentapharm.
85% of women reported the skin lightening effects after 90 Days
In a separate 90-day study on 26 female volunteers, a 2% Alpha-Arbutin cream was shown to effectively reduce the appearance of liver spots – with 85% of volunteers reporting lightening effects.
In another study involving Japanese women with melasma, a 3% concentration of arbutin produced good to excellent results in 71.4% of patients within three month period.
ReGenistem® (Glycyrrhiza – liquorice extract)
Liquorice root extract is a common ingredient found in many skin lightening cosmeceuticals and is also used in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases even outside the scope of dermatology due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties.
Liquorice extract is obtained from the root of the glycyrrhia glabra linnera which is native to the Mediterranean region with striated stalks of about one metre.
The primary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds found in liquorice root are the glycosides – glycyrrhizin and glycyrrizinic acid, flavonoids and saponins.
Glabridin (a polyphenolic flavonoid) is one of the main components of liquorice extract. Glabridin works by three main mechanisms:
- Inhibition of tyrosinase activity leading to reduced melanin production
- Inhibition of superoxide anion production. Superoxide anion is a reactive oxygen species (ROS). These are harmful oxygen molecules generated by UV rays and pollution. ROS attacks and reacts with stable molecules within skin cells causing irreversible damage to cells which trigger wrinkles and lessening the skins natural ability to repair itself. This is known as oxidative stress. Glabridin thereby inhibits irreversible skin cell damage by preventing free radical production.
- Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity thereby reducing and preventing inflammation.
- Up-regulation of proteins responsible for the synthesis of collagen type 1 and collagen type 3. The up-regulation of these collagen producing proteins leads to anti-aging properties such as improving skin elasticity and firming up dull, lagging skin.
Studies have shown that glabridin prevents ultraviolet B induced pigmentation, prevents damage to skin cells and exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting superoxide anion and cyclooxygenase activity.
These mechanisms contribute to skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties alongside soothing and regenerative characteristics.
Other active agents of liquorice extract include liquitrin and isoliquertin. Liquitrin is a glycoside containing flavonoid that induces skin lightening by dispersing melanin. In a study conducted in 20 Egyptian women showed that topical Liquitrin (1g/day) for four weeks was both safe and effective in the treatment of melasma.
In a double blind placebo controlled study, 2.5% of liquorice extract was evaluated as treatment of melasma in 93 females. Comparison between formulation treated group and placebo treated group indicated significant differences for overall response to treatment. The improvement in active treatment group was 93% while the corresponding value in placebo treated group was 4%. This clinical trial indicated that 2.5% liquorice extract was effective as treatment for melasma in a 28 days course with minimal side effects.
ComplexiLight research team have elected ReGenistem® as source for liquorice extract. ReGenistem® is a sustainable skin brightening active which is produced using a patented process that elicits secondary metabolites from meristem cultures obtained from liquorice differentiating ReGenistem® from other liquorice based ingredients because the technology utilizes calli that takes no longer than a month to grow. Utilization of the meristematic culture technology reduces the dependency of liquorice plant harvests, providing a more uniform, reliable skincare active.
In-vitro Efficacy Studies
ReGeniStem® Brightening was evaluated in a tanned epidermal melanin assay, comparing its ability to inhibit melanogensis against standard ingredients commonly found in skin lightening products. These skin-lightening ingredients include hydroquinone, kojic acid, and arbutin. A water-based liqourice extract was also included in the assay to compare to ReGeniStem® Brightening.
ReGeniStem® Brightening Melanin Assay
Melanin assay comparing ReGeniStem® Brightening to common skin brightening ingredients. ReGeniStem® Brightening showed a statistically significant change in melanin compared to untreated skin
The results from the tanned epidermal melanin assay showed ReGeniStem® Brightening outperformed all three of the common skin lightening ingredients and the water based liquorice extract.
ReGeniStem® Brightening at 0.01% and 0.02% showed a statistically significance change in melanin compared to untreated skin.
An additional assay was performed to measure tyrosinase inhibition. The tyrosinase enzyme is a key contributor to melanin synthesis and the mechanism of focus. Inhibition of tyrosinanse leads to a lighter, brighter skin tone. ReGeniStem® Brightening was compared to two common actives known for their ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity: kojic acid and arbutin. The results show ReGeniStem® Brightening performed comparably to kojic acid and arbutin in inhibiting tyrosinase activity.
Tyrosinase inhibition study of ReGeniStem® Brightening compared to common skin lightening ingredients.
The results from the tyrosinase inhibition study, in conjunction with the results from the tanned epidermal melanin assay, provide firm justification to further evaluate ReGeniStem® Brightening in an in-vivo panel study.
In-vivo Skin Brightening Study
A preliminary 5-person, 22-day skin brightening study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of ReGeniStem® Brightening in reducing the colour of skin. Skin was irradiated with a 2 minimal erythema dose (MED) on the back of panellists. ReGeniStem® Brightening was incorporated into a lotion base at 0.2%, 0.4%, 1%, and 2% use levels. Kojic acid, the positive control of the study, was also incorporated into a lotion base at 0.5% and 1% use levels. The base lotion served as the placebo in the study. The lotions were applied daily on the panellist back over the 22 day study, with measurements made on Day 8 and Day 22. The treated skin was measured with a Minolta chromameter and measured for the L* values of skin colour. A greater change in L* values indicates lighter skin tone.
In-vivo skin brightening study with ReGeniStem® Brightening compared to kojic acid, a common skin-lightening ingredient
The results show ReGeniStem® Brightening at the lower concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%) performed comparably to kojic acid at 0.5%. ReGeniStem® Brightening at the higher concentrations (1%, 2%) performed comparably to kojic acid at 1%. Based on the results, ReGeniStem® Brightening has shown the ability to brighten the colour of skin and help even skin tone. Additionally, the results justify evaluating ReGeniStem® Brightening at a 1% and 2% use level for a larger, in-vivo study.
In-vivo Skin Brightening Study
An 84-person, 60-day study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of ReGeniStem® Brightening in improving skin brightening. The 84-panelist pool was divided into three 28-person groups, with each group applying one of three products on their entire face. The products were a lotion containing 1% ReGeniStem® Brightening, a lotion containing 2% ReGeniStem® Brightening, and a control lotion (the base lotion). Each group contained an evenly distributed population of gender and ethnicities: 25% African-American, 25% Asian, 25% Caucasian, and 25% Hispanic men and woman. Panellists applied the lotion on their face twice daily, once in the morning and once before bed. Measurements were made on Day 30 and Day 60 of the study with the Canfield VISIA CR system using visible light and analysed using the Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit. The skin brightening study was initiated in late spring and concluded in the middle of summer.
A panellist treated with 1% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 0.55% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit
The results from the 84-person in-vivo study showed ReGeniStem® Brightening improved skin brightening at use levels as low as 1%. The panelist from figure 1 was measured to have a 0.55% improvement in skin brightening, a value which, when initially read, would indicate very little improvement. However, when correlating the measurement to the images generated from the study, a 0.55% measurement does show a visible improvement in overall skin tone.
A panellist treated with 1% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 1.10% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Tookit
Panellist treated with 1% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 2.00% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit
The panellist from figure 3 was measured to have a 2.00% improvement in skin brightening. The effects of ReGeniStem® Brightening are prominent, with the active improving the overall skin tone with lighter and more balanced skin. In addition, ReGeniStem® Brightening helped to target the large blemish on their cheek by lightening the pigmentation and helping to blend it in with their natural skin tone.
In-vivo Skin Brighteness Study with ReGeniStem® Brightening
Mean improvement in skin brightening with ReGeniStem® Brightening. ReGeniStem® Brightening showed a statistically significant improvement in skin brightening compared to the control.
Across the entire in-vivo study, ReGeniStem® Brightening showed a statistically significant improvement in skin brightness of the panellist evaluated, with a mean improvement in skin brightening of 1.00% when utilizing ReGeniStem® Brightening at a 1% use level. In addition, we see a dose dependent response in improving skin brightness, with a 1.20% improvement in skin brightening when utilizing ReGeniStem® Brightening at a 2% use level.
Additional In-vitro Data
The images generated from the in-vivo study showed an improvement in overall skin tone, while targeting imperfections and hyperpigmentation very effectively. In addition, there are signs there are anti-aging benefits such as helping to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. A protein assay was performed on ReGeniStem®Brightening to discover any additional benefits which the novel active may provide the skin.
In-vitro Protein Assay of ReGeniStem® Brightening: Type-III Collagen
Results of in-vitro protein assay of ReGeniStem® Brightening for Type-III Collagen. ReGeni- Stem® Brightening at 0.005% and 0.01% showed a statistical significant upregulation of Type-III Collagen compared to untreated skin
Results of in-vitro protein assay of ReGeniStem® Brightening for Type-I Collagen. All ingredients evaluated showed a statistical significant upregulation of Type-I Collagen compared to untreated skin. TGF-Beta is included in the study as a positive control for Type-I collagen synthesis
The results showed ReGeniStem® Brightening upregulated proteins responsible for the synthesis of Collagen Type-I and Collagen Type-III. The upregulation of these collagen producing proteins could lead to anti- aging properties, such as improving skin elasticity and firming up dull, lagging skin.
Additional Clinical Images
In-vivo Skin Brightening Study – 2% ReGeniStem® Brightening:
Panellist treated with 2% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 0.22% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit
Panellist treated with 2% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 1.57% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit.
Panellist treated with 2% ReGeniStem® Brightening with a 3.40% improvement in skin brightening over baseline via Vaestro Image Analysis Toolkit
N-acetyl glucosamine is a precursor to hyaluronic acid and is found throughout the human tissue. Its effects are significant in hydrating skin as well, as n-acetyl glucosamine has been shown to increase hyaluronic acid production in the skin after regular topical application (Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2006). N-acetyl glucosamine is an ingredient that has been proven to treat hyperpigmentation (Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2006). Its effects to reduce hyper-pigmentation instigates from the inhibition of tyrosinase glycosylation. This reduces the amount of melanin production in melanocytes. It has a very high safety profile.
Glucosamine itself has been reported to decrease melanogenesis, however formulating a topical agent has been difficult due to its instability. More recently, focus has now shifted to the development of n-acetyl glucosamine containing cosmeceuticals given its greater stability, good skin penetration and overall tolerability.
Glucosamine works best in conjunction with niacinamide, which is found in Olay products. According to a 2007 study in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study found that n-acetyl glucosamine and niacinamide used in conjunction on one side of the face are more effective than glucosamine alone in treating signs of hyperpigmentation.
In 2006, the International Consensus on Glucosamine Skin Benefits was held with leading scientists in conjunction with Proctor and Gamble Beauty. The panel determined that N-Acetyl Glucosamine, a more stable form of glucosamine, reduced the amount of melanin in skin cells, meaning there was less excess pigment in the skin to cause age spots. Additionally, the panel concluded that a formulation of N-Acetyl Glucosamin and niacinamide, a Vitamin B derivative, significantly reduced the amount and appearance of hyperpigmentation, age spots and uneven melanin distribution. Proctor & Gamble discovered n-acetyl glucosamine used in 2% concentration in combination with 4 % niacinamide leads to greater clinical effect due to synergistic effect.
In a study conducting by Bissett in 2007 (journal of cosmetic dermatology), 2% n-acetyl glucosamine was found to have a greater de-pigmenting effect after eight weeks of application. Through an 8 weeks study, it was shown that n-acteyl glucosamine (NAG) was effective in improving the overall appearance of facial hyperpigmentation as shown in figure 1:
Other than being an effective compound to improve hyperpigmentation, NAG help in synthesizing Hyaluronic acid, providing hydration and anti-aging benefits to the skin. One study shows that NAG increases the rate that skin fibroblasts make hyaluronic acid and collagen, while simultaneously lowering inflammation in skin. The researchers noted that aging fibroblasts exhibited more youthful behavior under the influence of NAG.
Figure 2 shows that hyaluronic acid (a commonly used hydrating active) exists mainly in the skin and articulation. In fact, hyaluronic acid is a combination of N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid one after another.
Due to its big molecular size, hyaluronic acid is difficult to be absorbed into the body. However, as the size of N-acetylglucosamine, a precursor of hyaluronic acid, is only 1/1000 of hyaluronic acid, it can be absorbed in the body easily and can produce efficient hyaluronic acid there.
In another study it has been found that NAG reduces the amount of free radical damage from UV radiation to fibroblasts, in turn preventing the activation of enzymes that break down skin collagen and accelerate skin aging.
The researchers concluded that NAG-induced changes in the skin fibroblasts properties which maybe important for prevention of the age-dependent changes in its structure and function.
Niacinamide is a biologically active form of niacin (vitamin B3) found in root vegetables and yeasts. One of the advanatges of niacinamide is its stability being unaffected by light, moisture, acids, alkalis or oxidizers. Niacinamide has several proposed medicinal applications in the skin industry including anti-inflammation, prevention of photo-immunosuppression and increased intracellular lipid synthesis.
During the 1970s various clinical trials highlighted the good skin penetration of niacinamide and since then scientists have been increasingly interested in exploring the topical effects effects of niacinamide and its application within skin care.
Niacinamide has the following effects on skin:
- Helps impart a more even looking skin tone. Extended exposure to sunlight is a main reason for hyperpigmentation. Melanocytes in deeper skin layers produce melanosomes that contain the pigment melanin. These are then released to keratinocytes that move upwards to the upper epidermis. Niacinamide does not inhibit the production of melanin but it was shown in 2002 that niacinamide inhibits the transfer of melanosomes to the surrounding keratinocytes by up to 68%. The scientists used a keratinocyte/melanocyte co-culture model.
A clinical trial by Proctor and Gamble, volunteers confirmed the skin lightening activity. They had applied a skin cream with 5% niacinamide for eight weeks. Age spots around the eyes and cheek were significantly reduced. 89% of participants reported a noticeable or significant decrease in hyperpigmentation:
Figure 1: Niacinamide 5% cream reduced hyperpigmentation at four and eight weeks.
In another clinical study by Proctor & Gamble 120 Japanese women aged 18-130 with moderate to deep facial tan, it was concluded that niacinamide induced a significant increase in skin lightness at four and six week time points and significant increase in graded visible skin at four weeks:
Figure 2. Percentage reduction of area of hyperpigmentation from baseline for niacinamide and vehicle treated side of face. Individual points circled at same week of use indicated significant difference.
In another study conducted in 2006 by Proctor and Gamble showed that the combination of n-acetyl glucosamine at 2% and niacinamide at 4% synergistically treated hyperpigmentation, dark spots and uneven skin tone in UV damaged skin cells. This synergistic effect instigated Complexi-Light research team to include N-acetyl glucosamine alongside niacinamide.
- Improvement of skin moisturisation. Skin softness, suppleness and skin hydration are related to barrier properties of the horny layer. It is known that several lipids such as fatty acids and ceramides are critical for the structural and functional integrity of stratum corneum. The skin barrier function can be assessed by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. A study conducted in 2000 showed that 2% niacinamide reduced the TEWL by 24% in four weeks. At the same time fatty acids and ceramides were boosted by 67% and 34% respectively.
- Improvements in the appearance of the aging of the skin. Skin aging is characterised by major skin changes like reduced skin elasticity poorer structures and appearance of wrinkles. An important factor is the gradual loss of collagen breakdown, while increasing fibroblasts. A recommended strategy in preventing skin aging is to reduce collagen breakdown, while increasing fibroblasts. Studies with human fibroblasts showed that niacinamide stimulates new fibroblasts by 20% and collagen secretion by 54%.
– Topical niacinamide at 4% has been shown to provide potent anti-inflammotory activity in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In a study reported by Shalita, 82% of subjects with inflammatory acne showed an improvement in global evaluation after eight weeks of usage accompanied by significant reductions in papules/pustules by 60% and acne severity by 52%. These effects may be due to niacinamide ‘s apparent anti-histaminic effect, its anti-oxidant effect or its inhibition cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity. In another study Niacinamide found that there was a significant reduction in both sebaceous lipids and triglycerides. The regulation of sebaceous lipid can also contribute to anti-acne properties.
The multiple beneficial effects of niacinamide on the skin makes it an excellent ingredient for Complexi-Lights formulation which helps to reduce acne, the appearance of wrinkles and also aimed at helping skin tone.
Considered to be the molecule of eternal youth, resveratrol is an anti-oxidant with surprising effects: it delays aging and prevents disease. Its reparative powers have attracted the attention of the cosmetics sector.
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring ingredient mainly found in red grape skin. It is also found in peanuts and in berries such as blueberries, cranberries and bilberries; some pine trees; and the roots and stalks of giant knotweed and Japanese knotweed.
In nature, resveratrol functions as part of a plant’s defensive arsenal. Resveratrol is an antimicrobial substance produced by plants in response to stress, infection, or strong UV radiation. In recent years, resveratrol in particular has become the subject of intense interest due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-aging properties.
In a recent study, the antioxidant strength of 1% resveratrol was compared to that of 1% idebenone. Idebenone is a powerful pharmaceutical antioxidant. Its benefits include shielding the skin from environmental damage, improving the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, reducing dryness, and smoothing skin texture. The results of the study revealed that resveratrol had a 17-fold greater antioxidant capacity than idebenone
Topical application of resveratrol to protect against UVB-mediated skin damage as well as inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress has been observed in a number of additional studies. It has also been shown to prevent UVA damage and abnormal cellular proliferation.
Resveratrol is also able to form soluble, complex molecules with certain metal ions, inactivating the ions so they cannot produce free radical formation. This action, in combination with its powerful antioxidant capability, makes resveratrol highly effective in combating the damaging effect of free radicals that leads to skin aging. The antioxidant ability of resveratrol is known to be both potent and efficient. In fact, it has been shown to be greater than that of vitamins E and C. One study demonstrated that resveratrol was 95% efficient at preventing lipid peroxidation, compared to 65% for vitamin E and 37% for vitamin C.
Resveratrol is also reported to stimulate healthy cell proliferation as well as collagen synthesis by protecting the dermal matrix from harmful enzymes and improving the function of fibroblasts that create healthy collagen. This phenomenon reduces wrinkles and fine lines for an anti-aging effect. Anti-inflammatory and skin-brightening effects have also been associated with resveratrol.
The benefits of resveratrol have been limited by the instability of natural resveratrol’s short duration of efficacy. For this reason Complexi-Light research team decided to incorporate Regu-Fade in to the formulation. Regu-Fade was launched by DSM at InCosmetics in Milan and has been shown efficacy during in-vivo testing. This nature identical pure trans-resveratrol, which is free from pesticides addressing consumer awareness about safety and visible effects, focuses on skin lightening. Regu-Fade is said to both even and brighten skin tone using pure, nature-identical resveratrol.
Regu-Fade is high performing and fast acting. It has proven its outstanding efficacy in only two weeks. Compared with a market benchmark, Regu-Fade worked faster early on and reduced the production of melanin more effectively throughout the studies.
DSM company has found that the resveratrol active attenuates skin pigmentation via multiple mechanisms, from initial signaling, gene expression to melanin production and final melanosome transfer.
- alpha-MSH signaling:
Regu-Fade down-regulates the alpha-MSH receptor expression to 49% in melanocytes, leading to decreased expression of tyrosinase, which reduces melanin synthesis.
- KIT signaling:
Regu-Fade decreases KIT (stem cell factor receptor) gene expression to 58% in melanocytes, which additionally reduces melanin synthesis.
- Melanosome function and maturation:
Regu-Fade also affects the function and maturation of melanosomes by reducing gene expression levels as much as 74%.
- Melanosome transport:
Regu-fade attenuates melanosome transport within melanocytes by reducing gene expression levels by as much as 69%. Melanosome transport to keratinocytes has shown to be reduced by the reduction of gene expression levels by 24%.
- Regu-Fade reduces the conversion of tyrosinase into eumelanin or pheomelanin shown by down-regulation of tyrosinase gene expression levels by 31% and other gene expression levels by as much as 85%.
The active reportedly down regulates key steps of melanin biosynthesis in vitro, resulting in brighter, younger-looking skin. In human trials conducted by the company, the resveratrol active was found to work faster and more effectively reduce melanin production compared with the market benchmark.
Regarding skin brightening, while some research has suggested that resveratrol is able to down regulate key steps in melanin production. Meanwhile, others have found that the ingredient inhibits the expression of inflammatory enzymes and promotes collagen synthesis.
Sirtuins have been the recently been associated and linked with resveratrol. Sirtuins are thought to extend the life of mitochondria, thereby preventing cellular damage. Resveratrol may activate sirtuins, so it may also have an anti-aging effect that extends beyond its antioxidant and collagen-promoting benefits.
In another study resveratrol has been shown to be more effective than ascorbic acid and kojicacid to lighten skin. It is fast acting with visible and significant results in only 2 weeks. In the same study it was found to reduce the appearance of aging skin due to its good antioxidant effects.
According to a small study published in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, resveratrol may be beneficial for treating acne too. Participants who applied a gel containing resveratrol to one side of their face and a placebo cream to the other showed a 66.7% reduction in acne lesions on the resveratrol side.
Synovea® HR (Hexylresorcinol)
Hexylresorcinol is an organic compound traditionally found in mouthwashes with local anaesthetic, antiseptic and anthelmintic properties.
It is available for use topically on small skin infections, or as an ingredient in throat lozenges. Johnson & Johnson markets hexylresorcinol in its Neutrogena and RoC skincare products as an anti-aging cream.
Recently, however, its ability to target pathways in the skin that lead to hyperpigmentation has propelled it into the skin lightening ingredient category. There is also thought that Hexylresorcinol has more benefits as well, including an ability to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, increase protection against UVB and UVA rays, and improve the skin’s barrier against pollution and sun exposure.
Clarins and other top brands in cosmetics have also introduced a serum that lightens dark spots while firming the skin.
Complexi-Light research team has decided to use Synovea HR from Sytheon as their source for hexylresorcinol. With safety, performance, differentiation and stability with the four key value drivers and with strong claim substantiation and with similar core values, alliance with Sytheon to create Complexi-Light has been vital in this formulation. Sytheon develops and offers a wide range of scientifically and clinically validated ingredients for improving health and beauty of the skin. Sytheon provides innovative solutions in areas such as of aging of skin and pigmentation control. Sytheon has several publications and issues and pending European and US patents.
Synovea® HR and Asyntra® SL Inhibiting Multiple Sites in the Melanogenesis Pathway
Synovea® HR is modulating at least eight sites in the melanogenesis pathway: